James Caldwell of Washington County, Pennsylvania|
and Ohio County, (West) Virginia
On February 22-1780 James Caldwell, Sr in applying for a Virginia land certificate, said that he had made settlements in 1772 at 3 places: on the Ohio River, on Wheeling Creek and on Buffalo Creek. He was one of about 30, who had made settlements in 1772 between Cross Creek and Grave Creek, near the Ohio River in what is now Ohio County, West Virginia. Most settlements were on Buffalo, Short or Wheeling Creeks. Only one 1770 date was reported and two in 1771. Moses Chapline and David Shepherd gave settlement dates of 1773, Ebenezer Zane of 1774. No doubt James Caldwell, Sr, 48, and oldest son, John, 19, made this 1772 exploratory trip together. John said his permanent set- tlement was in 1773. He was married in 1776. James, Sr, moved his family to the area in 1775, according to son, James. James, Sr, was a merchant. He settled at or near Wheeling on Caldwell's Run or Wheeling Creek. (James took up land on Middle Island Creek in 1774, but certainly did not live there.) Because of Indian attacks James, Sr, moved his family to Buffalo Creek, near present Clays- ville, 1777. He found temporary quarters until he bought a farm from Nathaniel Redford December 14-1778 in what is now Blaine Town- ship. He moved back to Wheeling in 1784. For 1783 only son John and son-in-law Moses Chapline were taxed with James, Sr, in Pennsylvania. Severe Indian attacks in the fall of 1782 had caused the move. James Caldwell, Sr, (son of Samuel) with wife and children left the western part of County Tyrone, Ireland in 1769, landing at Balt- imore, Maryland. He was a merchant at Havre de Grace, Maryland, un- til moving to the Ohio. In 1772 the Wheeling area was opening up. This territory was organized as West Augusta District, Virginia February 2-1775. It became Ohio County November 8-1776. On August 20 and September 18-1776 the name of James Caldwell is on a list of leading men in the District. He became justice of the peace in Ohio County January 6-1777. The next day militia captains were named. On January 28 a War Council was held at Catfish, now Wash- ington, Pennsylvania. By February 17 Indian attacks became a pos- sibility. The first attack was on Wheeling Creek June 8. The youngest Caldwell child was born near Claysville August 16. The oath of allegiance was required of all persons 16 to 50. In Ohio County son John Caldwell and (likely) nephew James Caldwell, "Jr", (i.e. the younger) took the oath October 8-1777. John was in service 1776-83; his brother Samuel in 1781. Both John and James "Jr" served under Captain Samuel Mason in 1777. On April 7-1778 James Caldwell was asked to make a list of all tithables (taxables) on Wheeling Creek; on June 6-1780 to make a list of the men in the company of Captain David Williamson, a neighbor. When Washington County, Pennsylvania was formed March 28-1781 (it included part of Ohio County), James became a resident of Donegal (now Blaine) Township. The earliest tax lists show: 1782 James Caldwell 382 acres 1 horse 3 cows 8 sheep James Caldwell "Jr" * 3 1783 James Caldwell 193 1 5 8 John Caldwell 193 1 3 6 James Caldwell "Jr" * 3 Samuel Caldwell * 400 (young son) * single freeman The last listing for James is 1784, for James "Jr" 1785. All slaves in Washington County had to be registered by December 31-1782. James Caldwell on December 28 listed Rachel 22, Isaac 8. Copies of this entry were sent to James May 28-1798. The name of James Caldwell, Sr appears in many land and court records. James had 30 grants, so John 41, son-in-law John Williamson 22. In the 1787 Ohio County tax list are named: James, Esq, John and Lames "Jr". Sons John and Samuel got Revolutionary pensions. James Sr died in Ohio County (now West Virginia) in 1804 at 80. He had 5 sons, all but Samuel, who went to Hancock, Illinois, died in the Wheeling area: James in 1838 at 68, Alexander in 1839 at 65, John in 1840 at 87, Samuel in 1850 at 81, Joseph in 1864 at 87. There were nine daughters, one died young. There were two probable nephews of James Caldwell Sr: (1) James Caldwell "Jr", who was associated with James Sr from the beginning, was a son of Samuel Caldwell of County Tyrone. Before 1793 James "Jr" married widow Frances Caldwell McClure, daughter of James Caldwell Sr. James "Jr" died at West Liberty, West Virginia about 1826. He had daughters Frances (married Alexander) and Adeline (1806-1884), single. See Ohio Co Order Book VVV 85 1802. (2) William Caldwell 1746-1822, born County Fermanagh, adjoining County Tyrone. He visited James Sr and returned to Ireland. In 1775 he made another visit. James wanted him to join the American forces, but he chose to join the British and became a colonel at Detroit. There is record of son William born May 11-1784 and son John born December 25-1785. (Draper Mss 17S212). Who was Samuel Caldwell, Philadelphia merchant, who in 1795 s old 21 tracts to James Caldwell, so John and son-in-law Moses Chapline? JOHN CALDWELL in his pension application (1832) S9146) said he was born in Ireland in 1753 and came to America in 1763. The family Bible brought from Ireland was in his possession. In 1776 he served under Captains Herrod and Wall at the mouth of Grave Creek; in 1777 under Capt Samuel Mason; 1778-79 guarding a fort (?Rice's) on Buffalo Creek, Washington County; in 1781 on Col Brodhead's expedition against the Indians. His father moved to Washingtin County in 1777, later back to Wheeling. John lived in Tyler, Ohio and Washington Counties. Blind, he died in 1840. SAMUEL CALDWELL in his pension application (1833) (S32168) said he was born March 1765 in Baltimore. (The family Bible says March 1769 "at sea".) In 1781 Samuel served under Captain John McCulloch. "His father was displeased (Samuel was 12) with him for entering the service, but at length he was advised by his father to suffer every privation." Samuel was at Wheeling when it was attacked in September 1782. While scouting for Indians he was wounded. He was in Morgan County, Illinois 1833; at Fairfield, Iowa 1841; at Wheeling, West Virginia 1847; in Hancock County, Illinois 1850, where he died. "Bear Wallow" Farm on Buffalo Creek Donegal (now Blaine) Township, Washington County, Pa - 4 miles northeast of Claysville - 1/2 mile north of Taylorstown. 1773 settlement 1778 Dec 14 (recorded Mar 1-1779) 400 acres sold by Nathaniel Redford "on which I now live" to James Caldwell, adjoining Robert Taylor - called "Bear Wallow" 1779 Nov 22 James Caldwell applied for Virginia certificate 1779 Dec 20 Certificate entered in Ohio Co, Va record book 1779 Dec 29 382 acres surveyed by Virginia, adjoining Robert Taylor 1781 land now part of Washington Co, Pa - no longer Ohio Co, Va 1782 Donegal Twp tax list James taxed for 382 acres 1783 James and son, John, taxed for 386 acres 1788 Mar 12 "Bear Wallow" 371 acres surveyed by Pa, adjoining Robert Taylor 1788 May 27 Warrant to accept by James Caldwell 1788 Jun 2 Patent issued 1787 Jul 16 189 acres sold 1800 Jul 7 192 acres sold James Caldwell b 1724 d 1804 Wheeling, W Va m 1752 Elizabeth Alexander b 1737 dead 1804 - Co Tyrone, Ireland to Maryland 1769 - to West Virginia 1770s 1. John Caldwell b Jan 22-1753 d Sep 15-1840 east of Wheeling m 1776 Jane Boggs c1758- c1843, daughter of Ezekiel and Jane Johnson Boggs - - Judge - served in Revolution - 12 children 2. Ann Caldwell b May 17-1755 living 1811 m1 --- ?Swearingen1 m2 c1797 John Lee, merchant 3. Mary Caldwell b May 27-1756 d 1821 m c1776 Moses Chapline, Jr 1754-1812 - Ohio County official 4. Sarah Caldwell b Dec 28-1758 m c1780 Gol --- Hughes 5. Frances Caldwell b Dec 15-1760 m1 c1780 Judge David McClure, m2 bef 1793 James Caldwell "Jr", son of Samuel, b c1755 d 1826 West Liberty, W Va 6. Janet Caldwell b Dec 10-1762 died young 7. Lovely Caldwell b Apr 6-1764 d 1798 m c1785 Robert Woods, son of Andrew, 1753-1830 - Surveyor 8. Elizabeth Caldwell b Aug 15-1765 d 1803 West Liberty m 1785 John Williamson, son of John, 1763-1794 - Indian Scout 9. Jane Caldwell b Sep 13-1767 m Sep 13-1790 John Rolfe d 1800 10. Samuel Caldwell b Mar 10-1769 "at sea" d 1850 Hancock Co, Ill m Nancy Able - to Ky, then Ill 11. James Caldwell b Nov 30-1770 d May 5-1838 Wheeling, buried at St Clairsville, m c1816 Ann Booker - - U S Congressman from Ohio 1813-1817 - 7 children 12. Susannah b Dec 30-1772 d 1834 m Nov 25-1795 John Hilliard 13. Alexander Caldwell b Nov 1-1774 d Apr 1-1839 north of Wheeling m Feb 2-1803 Eliza Jane Halstead d 1847 - - Judge - 9 children 14. Joseph Caldwell b Aug 8-1777 Claysville area of Pa d Jul 11- 1864 Wheeling m1 1804 Mary Yarnall 1780-1819, m2 Jun 22-1820 Catherine Ross Thompson 1800-1856, m3 Annie E Pugh - - Banker - 19 children Sources Estate and Deed, Land and Tax Records of Ohio Co and Washington Co County Histories Family Records
This article was transcribed by Liz DuBois of Bremerton, WA in August 1998.
|Raymond M. Bell Anthology   Genealogy in Washington Co., PA|
Published with permission of Raymond M. Bell.