|Washington County, Pennsylvania Before 1800|
(This account deals only with present Washington County, and does not include Greene County or southern Allegheny County, which were a part of the original Washington County, formed in 1781.) The land office at Philadelphia opened April 3-1769 and began taking applications for land in southwestern Pennsylvania. So began the movement of settlers to this region, coming from Maryland, Virginia and eastern Pennsylvania. The first settlements were made on bottom land or along streams. Orders of survey were issued. These had to be followed up by a warrant-to-accept and a patent. Many persons simply settled and applied later. Not until the formation of Bedford County in 1771 was there legal jurisdiction. Two years later Westmoreland County was formed. Washington County was a part of Pitt Township. In 1776 Virginia, claiming jurisdiction, formed Monongalia, Ohio and Yohogania Counties. See map. The formation of Washington County in 1781 ended the dispute with Virginia. Monongalia County and Ohio County continue to this day as West Virginia counties. Yohogania County has disappeared, although its court records have been published and the estate and deed records are in Washington County deed books B, C, E. There is a 1778 tax list for Ohio County, which included the western part of present Washington County. Listed are 352 Taxables. Yohogania had 910, but the names are not given. Monongalia records before 1796 were lost in a fire. The yearly tax lists for Washington County begin in 1782. These are valuable sources for genealogists. Because of Indian attacks, state taxes for some townships were exonerated in 1782, 1783, 1789. There is an excellent summary for Washington County in 1783: taxables 2408, houses 1670, whites 11800, blacks 300 (about half were slaves), horses 4250, cows 4900, sheep 6800, gristmills 25, sawmills 10, stills 60, tanyards 5. By 1790 there were 3100 taxables and 18343 inhabitants, in 1800 4970 and 28298. In the formation of Washington County in 1781 there were 14 townships (3 went to Greene County in 1796). The eleven were Amwell, Bethlehem, Cecil, Donegal, Fallowfield, Hopewell, Nottingham, Peters (part to Allegheny County 1788), Robinson (also part to Allegheny in 1788), Smith, Strabane. Formed before 1800 were these additional townships: 1782 Somerset; 1786 Hanover; 1788 Finley, Morris, East Bethlehem, West Bethlehem; 1789 Cross Creek; 1790 Chartiers; 1791 Canton; 1792 Pike Run; 1799 Buffalo. Land Land grants were made 1769-1775. From December 2-1776 to July 1-1784 there were none. From July 1-1784 to December 31-1786 there were many surveys on land often settled much earlier. When the Virginia-Pennsylvania boundary dispute was settled, it was agreed that persons who thought they were in Virginia could apply for a Virginia certificate, which would be honored by Pennsylvania. They had to have put in a corn crop or have lived a year on the land. The dates given for southwestern Pennsylvania tell when the settlers came. There were many other settlers who did not get certificates. The settlement dates given in the certificates are: 1769 32, 1770 64, 1771 14, 1772 141, 1773 148, 1774 306, 1775 167, 1776 65, 1777 20, 1778 2, 1779 3, 1780 2. Certificates were issued between October 30-1779 and June 26-1780 for these tracts in southwestern Pennsylvania: Yohogania 285, Ohio 165, Monongalia 30. The surveys made by Virginia, 20 on Pigeon Creek and 23 on Buffalo Creek, were honored by Pennsylvania. Slaves Slaves were brought into present Washington County mainly from Maryland and Virginia. All slaves had to be registered by December 31-1782. There were about 350 in present Washington County, 109 of them in Fallowfield Township. Those born after 1782 had to be registered. The last one was on June 4-1825. There were about 200. See Crumrine, History of Washington County, page 258. At age 28 all slaves born after 1782 were to be free. In the 1814 county census there were 32 slaves, ages 9 to 75. War In 1775 Lexington and Concord seemed far away. But then threats of Indian attacks, backed by the British, began to alarm the settlers. A council of war was held at Catfish (now Washington) January 28-29, 1777. Ohio County appointed captains. Six were from present Washington County: James Buchanan, David English, Jacob Leffler, Samuel Teter, Reason Virgin, David Williamson. A complete list of the men in each company, as listed in the Draper Manuscripts, has been published in the Western Pennsylvania Genealogical Society Quarterly 12:3:13. Records for Yohogania and Monongalia Counties have not been found. After the formation of Washington County the militia was organized in the spring of 1782. Colonels from present Washington County were: Thomas Crooke, John Marshal, David Williamson. Each battalion had 8 captains, each captain about 50 men. They are listed in Pennsylvania Archives VI 2. Most of the service was scouting and spying. There was very little "fighting." War neared southwestern Pennsylvania on September 1-1777 when Indians attacked Fort Henry (Wheeling, West Virginia). From this time on Indians made sporadic attacks on settler cabins. The only "battle" was at Rice's Fort in Donegal Township in 1782. See below. The Miller fort was attacked in March 1782. Records of attacks (killings and captures) begin in the summer of 1779. In the spring of 1780 45 persons were killed in the three Virginia counties. In August 1781 William Hawkins and others were killed. February 1782 brought attacks on the Carpenter and Wallace families. Miller's Fort was attacked March 31-1782, Rice's on September 14. The Indians were ordered by the British to cease attacks. But attacks continued in the spring of 1783, May 1784, June 1785, November 1787, March 1789. The last attack was in August 1789 when the father and mother and six children were killed. Rice's Fort This fort in Donegal Township had 3 connected blockhouses. Families in the neighborhood sought refuge there when danger was near. On September 11-1782 Indians attacked Fort Henry. But they were repulsed. So a band of 60 headed east and about 11 am on September 14 attack Rice's Fort. After intense fighting they gave up about 4 am Sunday morning and retreated to Ohio. Captain Jacob Leffler had gone to Wheeling to help defend Fort Henry. Other men had gone to Hagerstown, Maryland for supplies such as iron and salt. Abraham Rice had gone to a neighbor to get news. This left six men to defend the fort. The north blockhouse was manned by Peter Fullenwider 22 and Daniel Rice 18, the central one by Jacob Miller Jr 20 and George Philabaum 27, the south by George Leffler 31 and Jacob Leffler Jr 17. George Philabaum was killed by a shot through a porthole. Killed outside were a Fullenwider child and Conrad Philabaum, father of George. (In September 1982 the bicentennial was observed with a special program in the nearby Dutch Fork Christian Church.) Later Years The winter of 1779-80 was very severe, the coldest in a century. Inflation hit the settlers, prices were 140 times higher. But peace was welcome. The year 1794 brought the Whiskey Insurrection. The federal direct (window) tax lists the houses in Washington County. There were 2549 under $100. 696 $100 to $1000, 13 over $1000. One of the 13 was in Canonsburg ($1400); the others were in Washington. The top three were: Valentine Tavern (wood) $1600, Bradford House (stone) $1400, lawyer Keppele's house (brick) $1250. All the other houses (about 100) were of wood except the stone Huston Tavern ($450). The 1800 county census shows 4970 men over 21. Their occupations are given. The farmers were 77%, weavers 2.5%, blacksmiths 2.0%. The list is interesting. How different from one made in 1993. attorney baker barber blacksmith boat builder book seller brickmaker butcher button maker cabinet maker carpenter chair maker clerk clock maker constable cooper coppersmith cordwainer farmer ferryman fuller gentleman gunsmith hackle maker hatter innkeeper joiner justice laborer mason miller millwright minister nailer peddler physician potter printer reedmaker saddler sawyer schoolmaster shoemaker silversmith singing maste skin drier spinner squire stiller stone mason store keeper student tailor tanner tavernkeeper thresher tinner trader turner wagoner wagon maker weaver wheelwright The dictionary is needed to determine what some of these occupations were. These men were about the best known in this period: John Canon founder d 1798 from Chester Co Thaddeus Dodd minister b 1740 d 1793 New Jersey John Hoge founder b 1760 d 1824 Cumberland Co John McMillan minister b 1752 d 1833 Chester Co Dorsey Pentecost judge d 1793 KY Virginia Van Swearingen sheriff b 1743 d 1793 WV West Va Henry Taylor judge b 1738 d 1801 Maryland David Williamson colonel b 1752 d 1809 Cumberland Co Two academies were founded: Washington 1787, Canonsburg 1794. Religion The majority of the settlers in present Washington County were Ulster-Scot - Presbyterian. In 1790 there were 11 Presbyterian, 4 Baptist, 2 Methodist congregations, plus Ten-Mile Church of the Brethren, Bethlehem (now Lutheran), St Thomas Episcopal, Westland Quaker Meeting. The Presbyterians established a society large enough to build a church and call a minister. He was likely to serve for a number of years. The Presbyterian churches were: 1778 Chartiers (N Strabane) - Pigeon Creek (Somerset) 1779 Upper Ten-Mile (Morris) - Lower Ten-Mile (Amwell) Upper Buffalo (Hopewell) - Cross Creek (Cross Creek) 1789 Raccoon (Robinson) - Three Ridges (West Alexander) (Donegal) - Lower Buffalo (Independence) There were two Associate (United) Presbyterian churches: 1782 Chartiers (Chartiers) - North Buffalo (Buffalo) Two other Buffalo churches came later: 1802 East Buffalo (originally German) (Buffalo) - 1811 South Buffalo (Associate) (Buffalo). The Methodists had circuit riders beginning in 1784. These men preached daily, generally in cabins. The circuits were flexible and well-organized under Bishop Francis Asbury. The first two buildings were erected in 1786: Doddridge Chapel (Independence), Hawkins Chapel (now Taylor Church) (West Pike Run). The Baptists were the first to establish congregations. These were somewhat independent: 1773 Ten-Mile (Amwell), 1773 Peters Creek (Union), 1775 Pigeon Creek (Somerset), about 1775 Pike Run (Fallowfield). Other groups with founding dates are 1785 Westland Quaker Meeting (East Bethlehem), 1788 Bethlehem (now Lutheran) (German origin) (West Bethlehem), 1789 St Thomas Episcopal (West Pike Run). The Ten-Mile Church of the Brethren (also German origin) may have started about 1776 with preaching in the cabin of Martin Spohn by Daniel Leatherman. Miscellaneous In 1782 a petition for a new state was circulated in southwestern Pennsylvania. There were about 2000 signatures on the petition submitted to the Continental Congress January 27-1783. The first court for Washington County was held September 17-1782. The town plan of Washington (town) was made October 13-1782. In this write- up census, church, court, land and tax records have been consulted. The Draper Manuscripts at Madison, Wisconsin are valuable, also the books by Boyd Crumrine on Virginia Courts and the History of Washington County. How They Lived The problems of every-day life in what had recently been a wilderness were food, clothing and shelter. The cabin was often built before the family came. Trees had to be cut down to make a clearing and a crude log cabin constructed of round logs, the cracks between daubed with clay. The roof was clapboard, the chimney at one end was stone, the floor was puncheon. As for furnishings, slab benches, three-legged stools and a round table were soon made. The family slept on bedsteads of cord and straw, with coverings of blankets, or sometimes fur. There was a cupboard of clapboard; clothing was usually hung on pegs on the walls. The door was made in two sections, the upper half being left open in fair weather, while the lower half protected the family from unwanted intruders. A gun was always kept by the door. The children slept in a loft at the end of the cabin opposite the fireplace. Until an outside oven was built, the big fireplace was used for cooking. The women were kept busy preparing meals, baking, washing, scouring, mending, sewing and spinning. Even milking the cow was left to the women. Every one was busy from dawn to dusk. To make the wilderness land into a productive farm, trees and underbrush had to be cleared, the earth plowed and sowed with wheat, rye, corn and flax. Implements needed were plow, sickle, hoe, spade, ax, maul, wedge, hatchet. The land was fertile. Soon they had wheat to grind in the handmill. Game was plentiful: buffalo, elk, bear, squirrels, wild turkeys. But there were panthers, wolves, buzzards, eagles, ravens. Snakes were ever present, and gnats and other insects abounded in warm weather. There was fruit, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, gooseberries, cherries, crab apples, grapes, pawpaws, plums. The family was well fed, with hog and hominy, johnny cake and cornpone, sausage, mush and milk. The German settlers added sauerkraut, ponhaus and smearcase to the menu. Nearly everything needed could be grown or made at home. Trips to the east were needed for salt and iron. The men wore a hunting shirt, breeches, leggings, jacket and cap, and usually moccasins. The women wore a plain gown and a handkerchief for head covering. The children went barefoot, except in cold weather. Neighbors shared with one another, perhaps carpenter or shoemaker tools, a grindstone or loom. House raisings and weddings were important events. In addition to horses and cows there were sheep, geese, hogs and even beehives. When guests came pewter dishes were brought out to replace the every-day wooden bowls, trenchers and noggins. Each cabin had a spinning wheel, but clocks were scarce. A family Bible was used to keep records. This was life in the late 1700s. It was a rough life and even a hard one, but with fair weather, good crops and friendly neighbors not an unhappy one. About 1780 there were three unusual problems - very severe winter weather, the coldest in 100 years - inflation 140 to 1 -and of course, Indians. But the population increased and improvements were made - life was better. Raymond Martin Bell
This article was transcribed by Cecily Sprouse of Davis, CA in February 1998.
|Raymond M. Bell Anthology   Genealogy in Washington Co., PA|
Published with permission of Raymond M. Bell.